Methods dating ancient artifacts
Linguists study languages, especially their development and their function within human culture. Back dirt - The excavated, discarded material (sediment, dirt) from a site that has generally been sifted for artifacts and is presumed to be of no further archaeological significance.Antiquarian - A term generally indicating a pre-20th-century collector of ancient artifacts before the development of scientific archaeology and the establishment of standards for excavating and preserving finds. This material may later be used to refill test pits, an action referred to as "back filling." Balk - A side wall of an excavated unit (square) or a partition of earth left standing between adjoining excavation units.Artifact - A portable object manufactured, modified, or used by humans. Years are counted back from the traditionally recognized year of Christ's birth. In antiquity, chert was one of the universally preferred materials for making stone tools (obsidian was another).Assemblage - A group of artifacts found within the same archaeological context (locus, matrix, stratum). In academic, historical, and archaeological circles, this term is now generally replaced by Before Common Era (B. Chipped stone tool - Stone tool made by striking a stone (core or preform) with another stone (hammerstone) or other hard material (such as antler).In the New World the term refers to a period when permanent settlements were becoming more common and human groups were making the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture. Bronze Age - A prehistoric period in the Old World, dating roughly from 3000-1000 B. E, defined by the widespread use of bronze as a material for tools, weapons, and ornaments. The lids were usually modeled to represent animal-headed gods or the heads of important people.In evolutionary biology, an "archaic" Homo sapien is a hominin (or hominid) who was slightly more primitive than modern humans (Homo sapiens). Bulb of percussion - A small, rounded protrusion on a flake resulting from the blow that separated the flake from its core or another flake. Carbon dating - see Radiocarbon Dating Cardinal Directions - Collective term for the four primary directions: North, South, East, West.Archaeoastronomy - The study of ancient astronomical knowledge and its role in past cultures. - Before Present; used in age determination instead of B. Balks are often left to aid with stratigraphic analysis.
Agora - An open-air place of congregation in an ancient Greek city, generally the public square or marketplace, that served as a political, civic, religious, and commercial center.All the sub-disciplines study aspects of past or present humans.Archaeologists generally study the physical and material remains of ancient societies, while cultural anthropologists study living cultures.AMS - Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an absolute dating technique that measures the amount of carbon-14 in an organic object and provides a rough indication of its age. Anthropology - The study of human beings, including their behavior, biology, linguistics, and social and cultural variations.In the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-disciplines: archaeology, biological/physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics.